MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS ( logical reasoning and data interpretation)

MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS (logical reasoning and data interpretation):

                     In this type of questions, usual mathematical symbols (+-,÷, x,<,> etc.) are represented by symbols, different from the usual ones. To solve this type of questions, substitute the real signs in the given expression and then solve the expression according to the rule BODMAS.
Example 1:
If + means ÷, x means -,+ means × and - means + ,then 8+6x4÷3-4=?
(a) -12
(b) -20/3
(c) 12
(d) 20/3
Solution:
(c) Using the given symbols, we have:
Given expression
= 8÷6-4x3+4=4/3-4×3+4
=4/4-12+4
= -20/3

WORD FORMATION ( logical reasoning & data interpretation)


WORD FORMATION ( logical reasoning & data interpretation):
                             This type of questions are simple and can be easily solved. No explanation is required as how to attempt these questions. Following examples will help you to solve this type of questions.


Example 1:
From the word 'LAPAROSCOPY', how many independent meaningful words can be made without changing the order of the letters and using each letter only once?
(a) 1
(b) 3
(c) 2
(d) 4
Solution:
                  (c) The words are LAP and COPY.
Example 2:
How many meaningful words can be formed with the letters EAML?
(a) 1
(b) 4
(c) 3
(d) 2
Solution:
                   (c) MEAL, MALE & LAME
Example 3:
If a meaningful word can be formed by rearranging the letters USCALA, the first letter of the word so formed is the answer. If no such word can be formed, the answer is X.
(a) C
(b) A
(c) S
(d) L
Solution:
                    (a) The word is CASUAL. The first letter is C

RANKING TEST ( logical reasoning & data interpretation)


RANKING TEST ( logical reasoning & data interpretation):
                             The position of a thing/person etc. in a definite order is called as 'Rank'.
✓  Position of person from upward

= [Total no. of persons-position of person from down] + 1 .
✓ Position of person from downward
= [Total no. of persons-position ofperson from up] + 1.
✓ Position of person from right
= [Total no. of persons-position of person from left] + 1.
✓ Position of person from left
= [Total no. of persons-position of person from right] + 1.

Example 1:
Aruna ranks twelfth in a class of forty six. What will be her rank from the last?
Solution:
Rank of Aruna from the last =[Total student-her rank from first]+1 (46 - 12)+1 35th.
Example 2:
Ravi is 7 ranks ahead of Sumit in a class of 39. If Sumit's rank is 17th from the last, what is Ravi's rank from the start?
Solution:
Rank of Ravi from the last-17 + 7 = 24th.
. Rank of Ravi from the start=(39 - 24)+ 1- 16th.

BLOOD RELATION ( logical reasoning & data interpretation)

BLOOD RELATION ( logical reasoning & data interpretation):

Some blood relations are, given below:
Mother's or father's daughter - Sister
Mother's or father's son - Brother
Mother's or father's father - Grand father.
Mother's or father's mother - Grand mother
Father's brother - Uncle
Father's sister - Aunt
Mother's brother - Maternal uncle
Mother's sister  -  Maternal aunt
Son's wife - Daughter-in-law
Daughter's husband - Son-in-law
Husband's or wife's sister - Sister-in-law
Husband's or wife's brother - Brother-in-law
Brother's or-sister's son - Nephew
Brother's or sister's daughter - Niece
Uncle's or aunt's son or daughter - Cousin
Sister's husband - Brother-in-law
Brother's wife -  Sister-in-law
Grand father's or grandmother's father - Great grand father
Grand father's or grand mother's mother - Great grand mother
Grand son's or grand, daughter's daughter - Great grand daughter
Grand. son's or grand daughter's son  - Great grand son.

Example 1:
A introduces B saying, "He is, the husband of the grand daughter of the father of my father?, How is.B related to A?
solution:
Father of the father means, grand father. Grand daughter of the grand father means sister. Husband of the sister means brother-in-law.
So, B is A's brother-in-law.
Example 2:
Pointing towards a persom in a aphotographo,Anjali said, "He is the only son of the father of my sister's brother"
How is that person related to Anjali?
Solution:
Sister's brother - Brother
Brother's father -  Father
Father's son - Brother
The person in the photograph is Anjali's brother.

CODING-DECODING (logical reasoning & data interpretation)

CODING -DECODING ( logical reasoning & data interpretation:

Code : A code is a system of words, letters, numbers or symbols that represent a message or record information secretly or in a shorter form.
Coding : It is a method of transmitting a message between the sender and the receiver such that no other person can understand the message.
In coding, actual alphabets/words/terms/numbers are replaced by certain other alphabets/words/numbers/symbols etc. according to a specific rule. To solve this type of questions we have to required to detect the rule and then answer the questions.
Decoding : It is a method to find the meaning of something that has written in code.
CODING-DECODING (logical reasoning & data interpretation)
Methods of coding:
(a) Skipping over the letter in the forward or backward direction.
(b) Writing the letters of given word in reverse order in part or in whole.
(c) Sometimes codes may be the position of those letters in alphabet.
CODING-DECODING (logical reasoning & data interpretation)
Example 1:


The word RUN is coded as SVO. What should be the code letters of LAY?
Solution :
                         R   U   N
            Here,    +1  +1  +1
                          S   V   O
                            L   A   Y
                           +1 +1 +1
                           M   B   Z
       LAY should be MBZ.

CLASSIFICATION OF ODD ONE OUT ( logical reasoning & data interpretation)


CLASSIFICATION OF ODD ONE OUT (logical reasoning and data interpretation):
                                           In this type of questions, all the options except one are belonging to same category. We have to identify which one is different from the rest.
CLASSIFICATION OF ODD ONE OUT ( logical reasoning & data interpretation)

There may be several kinds of relationship between given options.
For example.
1. Relationship based on meaning.
2. Functional relationship.
3. Word/number formation relationship.
4. Even, odd or prime number relationship.
5. Divisibility or non-divisibility by a certain number.
6. Repetition of certain digits/alphabets in the group.
CLASSIFICATION OF ODD ONE OUT ( logical reasoning & data interpretation)

Example I:
Find out the odd one out.
(a) 28
(b) 49
(c) 14
(d) 64
Solution:
(d) Except 64, all the rest number 28, 14 and 49 are divisible by 7 while 64 is not divisible by 7. Therefore 64 is different from the rest.
Example 2:
Which one is different from the rest three ?
(a) Door
(b) Table
(c) Gate
(d) Window
Solution:
(b) All the rest are the parts of a building.
Example 3 :
Find out the odd one out.
(a) Japan
(b) France
(c) Nepal
(d) China
Solution:
(b) All the rest are the countries of Asia.

ANALOGY ( logical reasoning & data interpretation)

Analogy ( logical reasoning & data interpretation):

            'Analogy’ means ‘Similarity‘. In this type of questions, two objects related in some way are given and another similar relationship has to be identified.
ANALOGY ( logical reasoning & data interpretation)
Types of questions :
                         (1) in this type, objects 1 and 2, related in some way, are given and object 3 is also given. We have to find out object 4 from the alternative provided which bears the same relationship with the object 3 as objects 1 and 2 are related.
                       (2)In this type, we have to find the pair of objects as objects 3&4 which bears the same relationship as objects 1 & 2 are related.
ANALOGY ( logical reasoning & data interpretation)

Example 1:
Deep : Shallow : Freedom :..........
(a) Democracy
(b) Convict
(c) Prison
(d) Discipline
Solution:
(d) 'DEEP' is the antonym of SHALLOW' while
Freedom' is the antonym of Discipline'.
Some more examples are given below:
Best :Worst
Initial : Final
Import: Export
Dawn :Dusk
Advance :Retreat
Cruel :Kind
Ignore : Notice
Sink : Float
Save: Kill
Lend : Borrow
Zenith: Nadir
Flocd : Femine
Create : Destroy
Mourn : Rejoice
Example 2:
Cenuine : Authentic :: Mirage :?
(a) lmage
(b) Transpiration
(c) Reflectiun
(d) Illusion
solution:
d) Illusion' is the synonym of 'Mirage`.
Some mare examples are given below:
Vacant : Empty
Admire : Praise
Ban: Prohibition
Abduct: Kidnap
Brim : Edge
Tempest: Storm
Stable : Rigid
Dearth: Scarcity
Blend : Mix
Fallacy: Illusion

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